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										GROTON MAZE TEST
SCRIPT INFO

Script Author: Katja Borchert, Ph.D. (katjab@millisecond.com) for Millisecond Software, LLC
Date: 10-28-2015
last updated: 08-15-2016 by K.Borchert (katjab@millisecond.com) for Millisecond Software LLC

Copyright © 08-15-2016 Millisecond Software


BACKGROUND INFO

											*Purpose*
This script implements a version of the Groton Maze Test, a measure of immediate- and short-term visuospatial memory,
described in:

Schroder, M.D, Snyder, P.J, Sielski, I. & Mayes, L. (2004). Impaired performance of children exposed in utero to cocaine
on a novel test of visuospatial working memory. Brain and Cognition, 55, 409–412.

Pietrzak, R. H., Cohen, H., & Snyder, P. J. (2007). Learning efficiency and error monitoring in normal aging: 
An investigation using a novel hidden maze learning test. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22, 235–245.

Mathewson, K.J., Dywan, J., Snyder, P.J., Tays, W.J., & Segalowitz, S.J.(2008). Aging and electrocortical response 
to error feedback during a spatial learning task. Psychophysiology, 45, 936–948.



											  *Task*
Participants are asked to follow/find a hidden pathway in a 10x10matrix from the left upper corner to the 
right lower corner. They can only move one square at a time, left or right or up or down. 
By default, the pathway requires 28 moves (not counting clicking the start square) and 11 corners.	
Participants work on the same maze 6 times: 5 immediate rounds and 1 delayed one.									  


DATA FILE INFORMATION: 
The default data stored in the data files are:

(1) Raw data file: 'GrotonMazeTest_raw*.iqdat' (a separate file for each participant)

build:							Inquisit build
computer.platform:				the platform the script was run on
computer.platform:				the platform the script was run on
date, time, subject, group:		date and time script was run with the current subject/groupnumber 
/count_rounds:					counts the number of times block.maze is run
blockcode, blocknum:			the name and number of the current block
trialcode, trialnum: 			the name and number of the currently recorded trial
									(Note: not all trials that are run might record data; by default data is collected unless /recorddata = false is set for a particular trial/block) 
/nextbox:						stores the cell number of the next correct cell (1-100); from left to right, top to bottom
/lastcorrectcell:				stores the number of the last correct square
response:						the participant's response
/selectedcell:					stores the cell number of selected cell 
/stop:							0 = block continues; 1= block stops
/backwardselection:				1 = the selected cell is already part of the uncovered pathway (participant went backwards on path); correction moves do not count
								0 = the selected cell is not part of the uncovered pathway
/repeatselection:				0 = the selected cell has not been selected/tried yet to find the next correct cell
								1 = the selected cell has already been selected/tried to find the next correct cell								
/locationvalid:					1 = selected cell is only 1 square away from the last correct cell
								0 = selected cell is more than 1 square away from the last correct cell
correct:						the correctness of the response (1 = correct; 0 = incorrect)
/ErrorType:						LE = Legal Error (one/first incorrect selection)
								PE = Perserverance Error (second incorrect selection in a row - participant failed to return to last correct square)
								RbE = Rule break Error (third and more incorrect selections in a row)
latency: 						the response latency (in ms)
/count_moves:					counts the number of moves that participant makes (number of selections; selecting the disc at the beginning is not counted) in a block
/count_correctmoves:			counts the number of correct moves that a participant makes in a block
/count_correctionmoves:			counts the number of times participant correctly selects the last correct cell in a block after making an error
/count_errors:					sums up the number of errors made in a block
/ConsecutiveErrors:				contains the number of Consecutive Errors made (resets after a correct response is given)
/selectedcellsequence:			stores the sequence of all selected cells per round

(2) Summary data file: 'GrotonMazeTest_summary*.iqdat' (a separate file for each participant)

script.startdate:				date script was run
script.starttime:				time script was started
script.subjectid:				subject id number
script.groupid:					group id number
script.elapsedtime:				time it took to run script (in ms)
computer.platform:				the platform the script was run on
computer.platform:				the platform the script was run on
/completed:						0 = script was not completed (prematurely aborted); 1 = script was completed (all conditions run)
/CMS_1-:				
/CMS_5: 						calculates the number of correct moves made per second during each immediate learning block (round1-5)
/meanCMS:						calculates the mean number of correct moves in rounds1-5
/CMS_delayed: 					calculates the number of correct moves made per second during the delayed learning block 
/duration_1-
/duration_delayed:				stores the duration (in ms) of each learning run, starting at first selection (excluding selecting the start square)
								(sum of latencies of all square selections)
/errors_1-
/errors_delayed:				stores the number of errors made in each learning run (1-5, delayed)
/correctmoves:					stores the number of correct moves per block								
/pathway:						stores the randomly selected pathway (see list.pathways under Editable lists)								
							
								
								
EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP
6 Learning rounds: 5 immediate; 1 delayed
=> the script provides 5 mazes that all require 28 selections (not counting the selecting the start) and 11 corners.
These lists are not original to Snyder et all. The mazes can be edited under section Editable Lists -> list.pathways.
The computer randomly selects one of the mazes for each participant.

Description of rounds:
* Each Run/Timing starts with Participants selecting the upper left corner.
=> if the upper left corner is not selected, participants receive a reminder to select it.
* Participants then have to decide to click the next valid square (either to the right/left or below/above); etc.
=> a correct move is signaled by a 'positivesound' and the selected square turning briefly green
=> an incorrect move is signaled by a 'negativesound' and the selected square turning briefly red,
After an incorrect move, participants are required to return to the last correct square to continue. If participants fail
to return to the last correct square after 3 consecutive incorrect choices, a flashing "!" appears in the last 
correct square. Participants need to click it in order to move on (a text reminder is optional)
* the run ends by participants clicking the lower right corner (finish cell) once the finish cell is the next
correct response. 

Error Scoring in this script (see Pietrzak et al, 2007):

1) Legal Errors: the first error (in a row) a participant makes is coded as a legal error.
2) Perserverative Errors: if participants fail to return to the last correct square after making an error the response is termed perserverative.
Anymore consecutive error responses after a perserverative error are labeled "Rule-break" 							
3) More than 2 consecutive errors are labeled "rule-break error"			
	
PRACTICE 
For practice, the TimedChaseTest.iqx can be run

INSTRUCTIONS
are not original. They are provided as simple htm documents and can be edited directly in the htm files.

EDITABLE CODE:
check below for (relatively) easily editable parameters, stimuli, instructions etc. 
Keep in mind that you can use this script as a template and therefore always "mess" with the entire code to further customize your experiment.

The parameters you can change are:

/showerrorreminder:				true = a verbal reminder to return to the last correct square is presented once participants has selected 3 incorrect squares
								false = no verbal reminder is presented

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