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							Hearts and Flowers Task - a child friendly Simon's Task 
							(primarily keyboard version but adapts to touchscreen devices)
SCRIPT INFO

Script Author: Katja Borchert, Ph.D. (katjab@millisecond.com) for Millisecond Software, LLC
Date: 03-26-2018
last updated: 05-31-2018 by K.Borchert (katjab@millisecond.com) for Millisecond Software LLC

Script Copyright © 05-31-2018 Millisecond Software


BACKGROUND INFO 

											*Purpose*
This script implements the Hearts and Flowers Task (a child friendly Simon's Task), a test of Executive Control. 
The task is described in:

Diamond,A., Barnett, W.S., Thomas,J. & Munro, S. (2007). Preschool Program Improves
Cognitive Control. SCIENCE, 318, 1387-1388 
(as well as supporting documents)

The Hearts and Flowers Task is based on the Dot-Task:l

M.C. Davidson, D. Amso, L.C. Anderson, A. Diamond (2006). Development of cognitive control and executive functions from 4 to 13 years:
Evidence from manipulations of memory, inhibition, and task switching. Neuropsychologia 44, 2037–2078

This script runs with keyboard input but adapts to touchscreen-only devices by providing response buttons
as well as adapting visual/text instructions to the different platforms automatically.
(for a task specifically designed for touchscreen/mouse input: check out heartsandflowerstask_mi.iqx)


											  *Task*
Participants are presented trials with either a heart or a flower that appear to the left or right of a fixation cross.
If participants see a heart, they are asked to press the corresponding left ('A') or right ('L') response button (=congruent trials).
For example, if the heart is left to the fixation cross, participants are asked to press the left ("A") key.
If participants see a flower, they are asked to press the opposite response button (=incongruent trials).
For example, if the flower is left to the fixation cross, participants are asked to press the right ("L") key.

3 main blocks to test the three core abilities of Executive Control (Diamond et al, 2007)*:
1) only congruent trials: participants work through a block of heart trials (Working Memory)
2) only incongruent trials: participants work through a block of flower trials (Working Memory + Inhibitory Control)
3) mixed trials: participants work through a random mix of heart and flower trials (Working Memory + Inhibitory Control + Cognitive Flexibility)

*Note:
The following are the three core abilities of Executive Control (Diamond et al, 2007)
1. Working Memory: Remember the rules and execute them accordingly
2. Inhibitory Control: Ability to override behavioral impulses
3. Cognitive Flexibility: Adapt behavior to changing demands



DATA FILE INFORMATION: 
The default data stored in the data files are:

(1) Raw data file: 'heartsandflowerstask_keyboard_raw*.iqdat' (a separate file for each participant)*

build:							Inquisit build
computer.platform:				the platform the script was run on
date, time, subject, group:		date and time script was run with the current subject/groupnumber 
blockcode, blocknum:			the name and number of the current block
trialcode, trialnum: 			the name and number of the currently recorded trial
									(Note: not all trials that are run might record data; by default data is collected unless /recorddata = false is set for a particular trial/block) 

/condition:						1 = congruent-only; 2 = incongruent-only; 3 = mixed
/position:						1 = stimulus is positioned on the left; 2 = stimulus is positioned on the right
/congruence:					1 = congruent trial; 2 = incongruent trial
/prevCongruence:				the congruence of the previous trial (important for mixed condition only)
/switch:						1 = switch trial (trial type changed from congruent to incongruent or vice versa);
								2 = nonswitch trial (trial type stayed the same)
/countSwitch:					counts the number of switch trials per block									
									
stimulusitem:					the presented stimuli in order of trial presentation
response:						the participant's response (scancode of responsebutton)
									30 = A = left
									38 = L = right
									(57 = spacebar)
correct:						accuracy of response: 1 = correct response; 0 = otherwise
latency: 						the response latency (in ms); measured from:
list.ACC_practice.mean:			the proportion correct during the current practice block
/countCongruent:				counts the number of congruent practice blocks run
/countIncongruent:				counts the number of incongruent practice blocks run
/countMixed:					counts the number of mixed practice blocks run


(2) Summary data file: 'heartsandflowerstask_keyboard_summary*.iqdat' (a separate file for each participant)*

script.startdate:				date script was run
script.starttime:				time script was started
script.subjectid:				subject id number
script.groupid:					group id number
script.elapsedtime:				time it took to run script (in ms)
computer.platform:				the platform the script was run on
/completed:						0 = script was not completed (prematurely aborted); 1 = script was completed (all conditions run)
/countCongruent:				counts the number of congruent practice blocks run
/practiceACC_congruent:			the highest proportion correct in one of the congruent practice blocks (if not run, propCorrect = 0)
/passCongruent:					1 = participant successfully passed the congruent practice; 0 = otherwise
/countIncongruent:				counts the number of incongruent practice blocks run
/practiceACC_incongruent:		the highest proportion correct in one of the incongruent practice blocks (if not run, propCorrect = 0)
/passInCongruent:				1 = participant successfully passed the incongruent practice; 0 = otherwise
/countMixed:					counts the number of mixed practice blocks run
/practiceACC_mixed:				the highest proportion correct in one of the mixed practice blocks (if not run, propCorrect = 0)
/passMixed:						1 = participant successfully passed the mixed practice; 0 = otherwise

/propCorrect:					proportion correct across all test trials
/meanRT:						mean latency of correct responses across all test trials

/propCorrect_congruent:			proportion correct across congruent-only test trials
/meanRT_congruent:				mean latency of correct responses across congruent-only test trials

/propCorrect_incongruent:		proportion correct across incongruent-only test trials
/meanRT_incongruent:			mean latency of correct responses across incongruent-only test trials

/propCorrect_mixed:				proportion correct across test trials in mixed block
/meanRT_mixed:					mean latency of correct responses across test trials in mixed block

/propCorrect_switch:			proportion correct across switch trials in mixed block
/meanRT_switch:					mean latency of correct responses across switch test trials in mixed block
									switch trial: switch from congruent to incongruent trial and vice versa

/propCorrect_nonswitch:			proportion correct across nonswitch trials in mixed block
/meanRT_nonswitch:				mean latency of correct responses across nonswitch test trials in mixed block


* separate data files: to change to one data file for all participants (on Inquisit Lab only), go to section
"DATA" and follow further instructions


EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

3 main conditions: run in sequence
1. Congruent-Only: 20 'heart' trials (10 hearts appear left, 10 hearts appear right): press matching response button
2. Incongruent-Only: 20 'flower' trials (10 flowers appear left, 10 flowers appear right): press opposite response button
3. Mixed*: 10 'heart' trials (5 hearts left, 5 hearts right), 10 'flowers' trials (5 flowers left, 5 flowers right)
	=> random order with constraint that max. 3 of the same trials can be run consecutively
	=> number of switch trials will vary (minimum number of switch trials = 6 for 20 trials)
		switch trial: switch from congruent to incongruent trial and vice versa	
* Diamond et al (2007) do not specify how the mixed condition is set up in detail other than that
the trials were randomly intermixed. In this script, a constraint was placed on the random selection to 
ensure that a minimum of switch trials would run for each participant.
	

Each condition runs:
A. Practice Block(s): a maximum of 3 (default, can be set under section Editable Parameters) practice blocks of 
8 trials. If participants reach a performance of 75% correct (default, can be set under section Editable Parameters) 
during any of the blocks, the test block is started - otherwise the script is aborted after 3 unsuccessful practice blocks
During practice, participants receive positive feedback for 500ms in the form of a 'smiley' and auditory feedback if they
press the correct response button. For incorrect responses as well as noresponses, participants will get a visual and auditory
reminder of the rules and have to retry the trial (at this point, only correct responses are accepted to move to the next trial).

B. Test Block: 
Each Test Block runs 20 trials.

Note: number of trials per block can be set under section Editable Parameters

Trial Sequence:
stimulus (heart or flower)-> max. 5000ms(congruent-only and incongruent-only)/6000ms (mixed) -> iti: 1000ms
(timings can easily be changed under section Editable Parameters)
	
STIMULI
provided by Millisecond Software - can be edited under section Editable Stimuli

INSTRUCTIONS
provided by Millisecond Software (not original to Diamond et al, 2007)- can be edited under section Editable Instructions
Note: different visual stimuli are provided for devices with keyboards vs. devices without keyboards
The instruction stimuli for devices with detected external keyboards are located in helper script: hearsandflowers_instructions_keyboard.iqx
The instruction stimuli for devices without detected external keyboards are located in helper script: hearsandflowers_instructions_touchscreen.iqx


EDITABLE CODE:
check below for (relatively) easily editable parameters, stimuli, instructions etc. 
Keep in mind that you can use this script as a template and therefore always "mess" with the entire code to further customize your experiment.

The parameters you can change are:

/congruentStim:					stores the label used for the congruent stim (default: "heart")
/incongruentStim:				stores the label used for the incongruent stim (default: "flower")
										Note: if the stimuli are changed, picture.congruentStim and picture.incongruentStim need
										to be updated accordingly

/minPracticeACC:				the minimum practice performance (proportion correct) to let participants move from a 
								practice block to a test block (default: 0.75)
/maxPracticeRepeats:			number of times a practice blocks can be repeated before the script is aborted (default: 3)
/numberPracticeTrials:			the number of practice trials per practice block (default: 8)
/numberTestTrials:				the number of test trials per test block (default: 20)
									Note: the number of trials should be divisible by 4

/stimDuration_simpleBlock:		the duration (in ms) of the stimulus presentation (= response timeout) for a 'simple' (= one stimulus) block (default: 5000)
/stimDuration_mixedBlock:		the duration (in ms) of the stimulus presentation (= response timeout) for the mixed block (default: 6000)
/iti:							the intertrial interval (in ms) (default: 1000)

/picSize:						the proportional sizing (proportional to canvas height) of the pictures (default: 10%)
/fixationSize:					the proportional sizing (proportional to canvas height) of the fixation cross (default: 15%)
/left_x:						the left x-coordinate in canvas percentage (default: 30%)
/right_x:						the right x-coordinate in canvas percentage (default: 70%)
									Note: left edge of canvas = 0%, right edge of canvas = 100%
									(canvas = portion of the screen dedicated for the script)

/leftkey:						the scancode of the left response button (default: 30)
/leftkey_label:					the label associated with the left response button (default: "A")
/rightkey:						the scancode of the right response button (default: 38)
/rightkey_label:				the label associated with the right response button (default: "L")
									Note: Tools -> Keyboard Scancodes
									
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