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								Verbal Paired Associates Learning Task
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Script Author: Katja Borchert, Ph.D. (katjab@millisecond.com) for Millisecond Software, LLC
Date: 08-22-2018
last updated:  03-13-2020 by K. Borchert (katjab@millisecond.com) for Millisecond Software, LLC

Script Copyright © 03-13-2020 Millisecond Software

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BACKGROUND INFO 	
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This script implements a basic computer-adapted Paired Associates Learning Task inspired by the one used by the
Wechsler Memory Scale, Fourth Edition (Wechsler, 2009) Verbal Paired Associates I & II 
as summarized in:

Thiruselvam, I., Vogt, E.M, & James B. Hoelzle, J.B. (2015). The Interchangeability of CVLT-II and 
WMS-IV Verbal Paired Associates Scores: A Slightly Different Story. 
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 30, 248–255.

The script presents the list visually and accepts written input.

Adjustments to z-scores as described by:
Gregg, A. & Sedikides, C. (2010). Narcissistic Fragility:
Rethinking Its Links to Explicit and Implicit Self-esteem, Self and Identity, 9:2, 142-161 (p.148)

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TASK DESCRIPTION	
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Participants are presented a list of 14 word pairs (fixed sequence), one word pair at a time, on the computer 
screen. Once the list has finished, the first word of each word pair is presented as a prompt together 
with a textbox. Participants are asked to enter the missing second word of the word pair into the box. 
Feedback is provided during the immediate recall trials.
The list learning/recall task is repeated 3 more times before a break (default: 15min).
After the break, participants work through an optional delayed recall test (no feedback provided) 
and a recognition task: 
28 words are presented to them, one by one, and participants have to decide whether the word was part of 
the original list (if so, press Y) or not (if so, press N).
14 of the words are list words, the other ones are new distractor words.
The test ends with an optional free recall test of the original list word pairs.

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DURATION 
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Recall 1-4: ~10minutes
Break: ~20 minutes
Delayed Recall: ~3 minutes
Delayed Recognition: ~2 minutes
Delayed Free Recall: ~2 minutes
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DATA FILE INFORMATION 
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The default data stored in the data files are:

(1) Raw data file: 'verbalpairedassociatestest_raw*.iqdat' (a separate file for each participant)*

build:									The specific Inquisit version used (the 'build') that was run
computer.platform:						the platform the script was run on (win/mac/ios/android)
date, time, 							date and time script was run 
subject, group, 						with the current subject/groupnumber
script.sessionid:						with the current session id

blockcode, blocknum:					the name and number of the current block (built-in Inquisit variable)
trialcode, trialnum: 					the name and number of the currently recorded trial (built-in Inquisit variable)
										Note: trialnum is a built-in Inquisit variable; it counts all trials run; even those
										that do not store data to the data file such as feedback trials. Thus, trialnum 
										may not reflect the number of main trials run per bloc
																			
values.count_immediateRecallRounds:		counts the number of immediate cued-recall trials run
values.count_allRecallRounds:			counts the number of ALL (immediate + delayed) cued-recall trials run
values.familiarity:						1 = old word (word on list); 0 = new word (during recognition)
values.pairassociation:					1 = strong association between the words of a pair; 2 = weak association between the words of a pair

values.firstWord:						the first presented stimuli in order of trial presentation
values.secondWord:						the second presented stimuli in order of trial presentation (for recognition test)

values.correctResp:						the correct response
										recall: the correct 2nd word
										recognition: scancode of correct response key (21 = Y (old), 49 = N (new))
									
response:								the participant's response
										recall trials: textbox input
										recognition trial: 21=Y (old); 49 = N (new)
									
correct:								the correctness of the response (1 = correct; 0 = incorrect)

latency: 								the response latency (in ms); measured from 
										recall: onset of textbox until submit
										recognition: onset of word pair until response button is hit
									
values.Recall:							stores the recall text input (with single commas to separate the different words) per recall round
values.countCorrect_Recall:				tracks the number of correctly recalled words per recall round (resets after each round)

values.word1_recall-
values.word14_recall:					stores the number of times each of the 14 words has been recalled across the four immediate cued-recall rounds
										Note: 
										* numbers refer to the itemnumber of the word in item.wordsB
										* for a sequential presentation of words during list learning, the itemnumber would also refer 
										to the position of the word in the presented list (the default presentation order is randomized)

values.intrusions:						a storage variable that stores all recall intrusion words across the 4 immediate (+ delayed) cued-recall trials
										Note: check for misspelled words here and adjust scores accordingly 

values.recognitionScore:				the number of words correctly identified (Max: 28);
										Note: combines 'hits' and 'correct rejections'		

values.delayedFreeRecall_recalledWords:	stores the words entered for the free recall trial

values.FreeRecallWordEstimate,:			stores the computer-derived estimate of the number of words recalled in the free recall trial
										Note: Algorithm does not check whether the recalled words are actual words.
										
values.countCorrect_FreeRecall:			tracks the number of correctly recalled words for the free recall trial
values.countCorrect_FreeRecallA:		tracks the number of correctly recalled words A for the free recall trial
values.countCorrect_FreeRecallB:		tracks the number of correctly recalled words B for the free recall trial
values.countCorrect_FreeRecall_pairs: 	tracks the number of correctly recalled complete word pairs for the free recall trial

values.nr_otherFreeRecalledWords:		stores the number of words not from the word pair list recalled during the free recall trial (based on FreeRecallEstimate)
values.nr_recogIntrusions:				stores the number of new words from the recognition test that were recalled during the free recall trial
values.freeRecallIntrusions:			stores all the words entered during the free recall trial that were not part of the list
																
									
(2) Summary data file: 'verbalpairedassociatestest_summary*.iqdat' (a separate file for each participant)*

computer.platform:					the platform the script was run on (win/mac/ios/android)
script.startdate:					date script was run
script.starttime:					time script was started
script.subjectid:					assigned subject id number
script.groupid:						assigned group id number
script.sessionid:					assigned session id number
script.elapsedtime:					time it took to run script (in ms); measured from onset to offset of script
script.completed:					0 = script was not completed (prematurely aborted); 
									1 = script was completed (all conditions run)
								
									
expressions.recallScore:					sum of all correctly recalled items (wordsB) across the 4 IMMEDIATE cued-recall rounds (Max: 56)

expressions.delayedRecallScore:			 	number of correctly recalled items (words B) during delayed cued-recall (Max: 14)

values.recognitionScore:					the number of words correctly identified (Max: 28);
											Note: combines 'hits' and 'correct rejections'
										
expressions.freeRecallScore:				the number of correctly recalled word pairs from original list (max. 14) during free recall
											Note: both words of a pair have to be entered (but not necessarily in order)							

immediate Recall:
expressions.meanRecall:						mean of the estimated number of words recalled (IMMEDIATE RECALL only)- independent of recall accuracy
meanRecall:									mean number of correctly recalled words per list (IMMEDIATE RECALL only)

expressions.Recall1:						proportion correctly recalled words during immediate recall round 1
expressions.Recall2:						proportion correctly recalled words during immediate recall round 2  
expressions.Recall3:						proportion correctly recalled words during immediate recall round 3  
expressions.Recall4:						proportion correctly recalled words during immediate recall round 4 

expressions.prop_word1Recall-
expressions.prop_word14Recall:				stores the recall proportion of each 14 words across the number of IMMEDIATE recall rounds 
											(Max: 4/4 for each item)

											Note: 
											* numbers refer to the itemnumber of the word in item.wordsB
											* for a sequential presentation of words during list learning, the itemnumber would also refer 
											to the position of the word in the presented list (the default presentation order is randomized)
										
											Example: word 1(here: market) => market was remembered x out of 4 times during immediate recall
																					
values.round1_recalledWords-
values.round4_recalledWords:				stores the list of the recalled words for round1, round2, round3, round4 (IMMEDIATE RECALL)

values.delayedRecall_recalledWords:			stores the list of the recalled words for the delayed recall rounds	(IMMEDIATE + DELAYED RECALL, not free recall)							

values.intrusions:							a storage variable that stores all recall intrusion words across the 4 immediate (+ delayed) recall rounds
											Note: check for misspelled words here and adjust scores accordingly 
Recognition:
expressions.r_hits_recognition:				hit rate during recognition (hit => participant categorized old word as 'old')
expressions.r_FAs_recognition:				false alarm rate during recognition (false alarm => participant categorized new word as 'old')

Note: z-score calculations: adjustments (see Gregg & Sedikides, 2010, p.148)
If the hit rate / FA rate is 0 => 0.005 is used instead (aka 0.005 is added to the hit/FA rate)
IF the hit rate / FA rate is 1.0 => 0.995 is used instead (aka 0.005 is subtracted from the hit/FA rate)

expressions.z_hr_recognition:				z-score of hit rate
expressions.z_fr_recognition:				z-score of false alarm rate
expressions.dprime_recognition:				Computes d' (parametric measure of discriminability)

values.delayedFreeRecall_recalledWords:		stores the words entered for the free recall trial

values.FreeRecallWordEstimate:				stores the computer-derived estimate of the number of words recalled in the free recall trial
											Note: see below of algoritm implemented. Algorithm does not check whether the recalled words 
											are actual words.
									
values.countCorrect_FreeRecall:				tracks the number of correctly recalled words for the free recall trial
values.countCorrect_FreeRecallA:			tracks the number of correctly recalled words A for the free recall trial
values.countCorrect_FreeRecallB:			tracks the number of correctly recalled words B for the free recall trial
values.countCorrect_FreeRecall_pairs: 		tracks the number of correctly recalled complete word pairs for the free recall trial

values.nr_otherFreeRecalledWords:			stores the number of words not from the word pair list recalled during the free recall trial (based on FreeRecallEstimate)
values.nr_recogIntrusions:					stores the number of new words from the recognition test that were recalled during the free recall trial
values.freeRecallIntrusions:				stores all the words entered during the free recall trial that were not part of the list


* separate data files: to change to one data file for all participants (on Inquisit Lab only), go to section
"DATA" and follow further instructions

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EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP 
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(I) 4 blocks: List Learning/Recall Task
- the words of a word pair are each presented for 1s (wordA is presented on the left for 1s, then word B is presented on the right for 1s)
- the interstimulus interval btw. pairs is 2s
- the order of the words is randomized for each round, both for the learning and recall portion
Note: go to section Editable Lists to customize the presentation/recall order of the items
for each of the rounds
- after an editable delay (default: no delay), the immediate recall starts (self-paced)
- feedback provided

Duration: ~10 minutes

(II) Break (default: 20min)

(III) optional: Delayed Recall Task (no feedback provided)
Duration: ~3 minutes
- the order of the words is randomized
Note: go to section Editable Lists to customize the recall order of the items


(IV) Delayed Recognition Task
- 14 old word pairs and 14 new word pairs are presented randomly
Note: go to section Editable Lists to customize the order of the items
- the words of a word pair are each presented for 1s (wordA is presented on the left for 1s, then word B is presented on the right for 1s)
- self-paced

Duration: ~2 minutes

(V) optional: Delayed Free Recall Task
Duration: ~ 2 minutes

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STIMULI
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The current stimuli lists are provided by Millisecond Software as demo lists.

Currently, 14 unassociated word pairs are provided for the initial study list.
An additional 14 unassociated words pairs are provided for the recognition test to serve as the 
unfamiliar (unstudied) word pairs.

The word pairs as well as their semantic associations can easily be edited under section Editable Stimuli.

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INSTRUCTIONS 
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are provided by Millisecond Software - change under section Editable Instructions

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EDITABLE CODE 
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check below for (relatively) easily editable parameters, stimuli, instructions etc. 
Keep in mind that you can use this script as a template and therefore always "mess" with the entire code 
to further customize your experiment.

The parameters you can change are:

/oldKey:			the "old key" response key (default: "Y"); the left response key
/newKey:			the "new key" response key (default: "N"); the right response key

/wordSize:				proportional sizing of study words (default: 6% of canvas height)

/stimDuration:			the duration (in ms) that each word of a pair is presented (default: 1000ms)
/pairISI:					the time (in ms) in between pairs (default: 2000ms)
/recallDelay:				the delay (in ms) between last presented study list word and the recall trial (default: 0ms)
/MinDelay:				the minimum delay (in ms) between end of last immediate recall trial and the delayed recall/recognition task 
						(default: 1200000ms = 20min)

/runDelayedRecall:		optional delayed recall task after the break
						true (1): delayed recall task is run (default)
						false (0): delayed recall task is skipped