Color-Blindness of Racial Attitudes Scale (COBRAS)

FREE for use with an Inquisit Lab or Inquisit Web license.

Available Test Forms

Color-Blindness of Racial Attitudes Scale (COBRAS)

A self-report questionnaire with 20 likert items measuring racial attitudes developed by Neville et al (2000).
Duration: 3 minutes
(Requires Inquisit Lab)
(Run with Inquisit Web)
Last Updated


Google ScholarSearch Google Scholar for peer-reviewed, published research using the Inquisit Color-Blindness of Racial Attitudes Scale (COBRAS).

Neville, Helen A., Lilly, Roderick L., Duran, Georgia, Lee, Richard M., & Browne, LaVonne. (2000). Construction and Initial Validation of the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS). Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(1), 59-70.

Henschel, M., Brooke, Stephanie, Gonzales, Dana, & Martin, Magy. (2009). The Correlation between Education and Color -blind Racial Awareness in European American Mental Health Professionals Working with African American Women, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

Oh, E., Choi, C., Neville, H., Anderson, C., Landrum-Brown, J., & Stevenson, Michael R. (2010). Beliefs About Affirmative Action: A Test of the Group Self-Interest and Racism Beliefs Models. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 3(3), 163-176.

Loya, M. (2011). Color-Blind Racial Attitudes in White Social Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 81(2-3), 201-217.

Penn, S., Post, P., & Demanchick, Stephen. (2012). Investigating Various Dimensions of Play Therapists' Self-Reported Multicultural Counseling Competence. International Journal of Play Therapy, 21(1), 14-29.

Burden, Joe W., Jr., Hodge, Samuel R., & Harrison, Louis, Jr. (2015). Physical Education Undergraduate Students' Colorblind Racial Ideology and Multicultural Teaching Competence. Multicultural Learning and Teaching, 10(1), 55-75.

Moore, P., Davis, Edward B., Hannah, Darlene, & Mangis, Michael. (2016). White Evangelical Undergraduates and the Impact of White-Privilege Awareness and Religious Social-Justice Views on Color-Blind Racial Attitudes and Distributive-Justice Preferences, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

Hughes, C., Hunter, E., Vargas, C., Schlosser, D., & Malhi, P. (2016). Police Endorse Color-Blind Racial Beliefs More Than Laypersons. Race and Social Problems, 8(2), 160-170.

Su, Y., & Behar-Horenstein, L. (2017). Color-Blind Racial Beliefs Among Dental Students and Faculty. Journal of Dental Education, 81(9), 1098-1107.