Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES)

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Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) - English

A 28 item self-report measure of dissociative symptoms by Bernstein & Putnam (1986) in which participants rate how frequently they experience various dissociative scenarios.
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Last Updated: Mar 5, 2022, 12:14AM


Google ScholarSearch Google Scholar for peer-reviewed, published research using the Inquisit Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES).

Bernstein EM, Putnam FW (1986). "Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale". J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 174 (12): 727–35.

Frischholz, E.J. et al The dissociative experiences scale: further replication and validation. Dissociation, Vol. III, September 1990.

Norton, G., Ross, C., & Novotny, M. (1990). Factors that predict scores on the dissociative experiences scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46(3), 273-277.

Dunn, G., Ryan, J., & Paolo, A. (1994). A principal components analysis of the Dissociative Experiences Scale in a substance abuse population. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50(6), 936.

Collins, F., & Jones, K. (2004). Investigating Dissociation Online: Validation of a Web-Based Version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 5(1), 133-147.

Olsen, S., Clapp, A., Parra, J., & Beck, D. (2013). Factor Structure of the Dissociative Experiences Scale: An Examination Across Sexual Assault Status. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 35(3), 394-403.

Larøi, Billieux, Defeldre, Ceschi, & Van Der Linden. (2013). Factorial structure and psychometric properties of the French adaptation of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) in non-clinical participants. Revue Europeenne De Psychologie Appliquee, 63(4), 203-208.

Frischholz, E., Braun, B., Sachs, R., Schwartz, D., Lewis, J., Shaeffer, D., . . . Pasquotto, J. (2014). Construct Validity of the Dissociative Experiences Scale: II. Its Relationship to Hypnotizability. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 57(2), 102-109.

Mazzotti E, Farina B, Imperatori C, Mansutti F, Prunetti E, Speranza Am, & Barbaranelli C. (2016). Is the Dissociative Experiences Scale able to identify detachment and compartmentalization symptoms? Factor structure of the Dissociative Experiences Scale in a large sample of psychiatric and nonpsychiatric subjects. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 2016, 1295-1302.