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									Emotional Go/Nogo Task
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script Author: Katja Borchert, Ph.D. (katjab@millisecond.com) for Millisecond Software, LLC
Date: 03-01-2018
last updated:  12-13-2019 by K. Borchert (katjab@millisecond.com) for Millisecond Software, LLC

Script Copyright © 12-13-2019 Millisecond Software

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BACKGROUND INFO 	
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Go/Nogo Tasks are used as behavioral measures of inhibition. The Emotional Go/No Tasks leverages
this paradigm to investigate emotion processing, especially emotion recognition and emotion regulation.
The implemented procedure is based on:											

Tottenham, N., Hare, T.A. & and B. J. Casey, B.J. (2011). Behavioral assessment of emotion discrimination, emotion
regulation, and cognitive control in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.
Frontiers in Psychology, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00039.

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TASK DESCRIPTION	
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Participants view images of fearful/happy/sad/angry or neutral facial expressions and are asked
to 
Condition 1: press the spacebar when they see a fearful face ("go") and only then (nogo images: neutral faces)
Condition 2: press the spacebar when they see a neutral face ("go") and only then (nogo images: fearful faces)
Condition 3: press the spacebar when they see a happy face ("go") and only then (nogo images: neutral faces)
Condition 4: press the spacebar when they see a neutral face ("go") and only then (nogo images: happy faces)
Condition 5: press the spacebar when they see a sad face ("go") and only then (nogo images: neutral faces)
Condition 6: press the spacebar when they see a neutral face ("go") and only then (nogo images: sad faces)
Condition 7: press the spacebar when they see a angry face ("go") and only then (nogo images: neutral faces)
Condition 8: press the spacebar when they see a neutral face ("go") and only then (nogo images: angry faces)

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DURATION 
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the default set-up of the script takes appr. 10 minutes to complete

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DATA FILE INFORMATION 
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The default data stored in the data files are:

(1) Raw data file: 'emotionalgonogo_raw*.iqdat' (a separate file for each participant)*

build:							The specific Inquisit version used (the 'build') that was run
computer.platform:				the platform the script was run on (win/mac/ios/android)
date, time, 						date and time script was run 
subject, group, 					with the current subject/groupnumber
script.sessionid:					with the current session id

blockcode, blocknum:				the name and number of the current block (built-in Inquisit variable)
trialcode, trialnum: 				the name and number of the currently recorded trial (built-in Inquisit variable)
										Note: trialnum is a built-in Inquisit variable; it counts all trials run; even those
										that do not store data to the data file. (Note: not all trials that are run might record data; by default data is collected unless /recorddata = false is set for a particular trial/block) 
										
condition:						practice, NF, FN, NH, HN, NS, SN, NA, AN (first letter = go stim; second letter = nogo)
GoFaces:						"NEUTRAL" vs. "FEAR" vs. "happy" vs. "SAD" vs. "ANGRY" (current go faces)
NogoFaces:						"NEUTRAL" vs. "FEAR" vs. "happy" vs. "SAD" vs. "ANGRY" (current nogo faces)
iti:								current intertrial interval (default: 0)
image:							the presented image

response:						the participant's response: Scancode of response key
									57 = spacebar
									0 = no response
									(21 = Y; 49 = N)
									
correct:							accuracy of response: 1 = correct response; 0 = otherwise
response_outcome:				go trials: HIT (correctly pressing response key), MISS (response key was not pressed); 
								nogo trials: FA (false alarm = incorrectly pressing response key), CR (correct rejection: response key was not pressed)
latency: 							the response latency (in ms) of the current trial (does not have to be a go, nogo trial)
response_time:								response time (in ms) of current practice and test go/nogo trials, 
								measured from onset of image (Note: if no response, 'RT' is empty)
							
								
(2) Summary data file: 'emotionalgonogo_summary*.iqdat' (a separate file for each participant)*

computer.platform:				the platform the script was run on (win/mac/ios/android)
script.startdate:					date script was run
script.starttime:					time script was started
script.subjectid:					assigned subject id number
script.groupid:					assigned group id number
script.sessionid:					assigned session id number
script.elapsedtime:				time it took to run script (in ms); measured from onset to offset of script
script.completed:					0 = script was not completed (prematurely aborted); 
								1 = script was completed (all conditions run)

Note: this script does not remove outliers
Note: the following expressions calculate z-scores based on hit and FA rate.(see Gregg & Sedikides, 2010, p.148)
If the hit rate / FA rate is 0 => 0.005 is used instead
IF the hit rate / FA rate is 1.0 => 0.995 is used instead

Reference:
Gregg, A. & Sedikides, C. (2010). Narcissistic Fragility:
Rethinking Its Links to Explicit and Implicit Self-esteem, Self and Identity, 9:2, 142-161 (p.148)

hitrate:							the overall  Hitrate across all blocks ( Hit = pressing spacebar for go stimuli)
z_hitrate:						the z-score of the overall  Hitrate
FArate:							the overall Commissionrate across all blocks (Commissionrate = pressing spacebar for nogo stimuli)
										overall Commissionrate-rate = overall Commission Error = measure of overall cognitive control (Tottenham et al, 2011, p.3)
										The higher the commission error rate, the more often the nogo-response was not inbibited and thus
										the lower cognitive control of the response.
										
z_FA:							the z-score of the overall Commissionrate rate
dprime:							difference btw. (z_hitrate - z_FA): measure of Sensitivity 
										Note: This measure is the main measure for Emotion Recognition in this paradigm (Tottenham et al, 2011, p.3)
										The higher the value, the better signals (go stimuli) were overall separated from noise (nogo) stimuli.
										(d' = 0: chance performance)	
										Thus: the higher the value, the better overall Emotion Recognition.
																								
mean_hitRT:						the overall mean Hit response time (in ms) 
SD_hitRT:						standard deviation of the Hit response times across blocks (in ms)


hitrate_NF:						the Hitrate in NF block  (NF = neutral go, fear nogo)
z_hitrate_NF:						the z-score of the NF  Hitrate
FArate_NF:						the Commissionrate in NF block
z_FA_NF:						the z-score of the NF Commissionrate-rate
dprime_NF:						difference btw. (z_hitrate - z_FA) in NF block: measure of Sensitivity
hitRT_NF:						mean Hit response time (in ms) in NF block
								
hitrate_FN:						the Hitrate in FN block (FC = fear go, neutral nogo)
z_hitrate_FN:						the z-score of the FN  Hitrate
FArate_FN:						the Commissionrate in FN block
z_FA_FN:						the z-score of the FN Commissionrate-rate
dprime_FN:						difference btw. (z_hitrate - z_FA) in FN block: measure of Sensitivity
hitRT_FN:						mean Hit response time (in ms) in FN block

(same for all other conditions)

FArate_Emotions:					Commission Errors for erroneously responding to Nogo Emotion stimuli
										=> can be used a measure for Emotion Regulation (Tottenham et al, 2011, p.3),
										in this paradigm operationalized as the ability to inhibit responses
										to emotionally valanced stimuli. 
										=> The higher the commission rate, the lower the ability to regulate emotions.
								

* separate data files: to change to one data file for all participants (on Inquisit Lab only), go to section
"DATA" and follow further instructions

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EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP 
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Practice: optional (see parameters.runPractice)
* 10 trials (5 go, 5 nogo)
* script uses item.practice as the go-stimuli (default facial expression: surprise) and neutral as no-go
* provides feedback for 1000ms

Test: 
8 Conditions: order of conditions is randomly determined
FN: go = fear; nogo = neutral (by default: fear faces are repeated twice after reset; neutral faces are repeated once)
NF: go = neutral; nogo = fear (by default: neutral faces are repeated twice after reset; fear faces are repeated once)
HN: go = happy; nogo = neutral (by default: happy faces are repeated twice after reset; neutral faces are repeated once)
NH: go = neutral; nogo = happy (by default: neutral faces are repeated twice after reset; happy faces are repeated once)
SN: go = sad; nogo = neutral (by default: sad faces are repeated twice after reset; neutral faces are repeated once)
NS: go = neutral; nogo = sad (by default: neutral faces are repeated twice after reset; sad faces are repeated once)
AN: go = angry; nogo = neutral (by default: angry faces are repeated twice after reset; neutral faces are repeated once)
NA: go = neutral; nogo = angry (by default: neutral faces are repeated twice after reset; angry faces are repeated once)

* Each condition runs 30 trials (20 go trials, 10 nogo trial); trial order of go-nogo trials is generated at random
Note: this script runs 2/3 go trials, 1/3 nogo trials (Trottenheim et al al report 70%:30%)


Trial Sequence:

image (500ms) -> fixation cross (1000ms): response timeout after 1500ms
-> iti = 0 (see list.iti) (iti presents fixation cross)

STIMULI
Trottenheim et al (2011, p. 2) used 10 adults (five females and five males) per facial expression.

The stimuli used in this scripts are placeholder stimuli only.
They can be edited under section Editable Stimuli.

The placeholder stimuli have the same image names as the following NIMSTIMS
for neutral (ne), happy (ha), sad (sa), fearful (fe) and angry (an) faces (all open mouth expressions)
female: 2, 5, 13, 14, 18
male: 21, 23, 24, 41, 42

practice stimuli (surprise (sp) and neutral (ne) expressions) are stand-ins for:
female: 1, 11, 15 
male: 32, 39

NOTE: The NIMSTIMS image files need to be converted to *png files (or the *png extensions used in this script need to be converted to *bmp )

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INSTRUCTIONS 
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provided by Millisecond Software - can be edited under section Editable Instructions

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EDITABLE CODE 
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check below for (relatively) easily editable parameters, stimuli, instructions etc. 
Keep in mind that you can use this script as a template and therefore always "mess" with the entire code 
to further customize your experiment.

The parameters you can change are:

/fixationSize:					proportional sizing of fixation cross (relative to canvas height) (default: 10%)
/picSize:						proportional sizing of images (relative to canvas height) (default: 50%)

/runPractice:					true: script runs a short practice session with item.practice as the go items
							false: script does not run a practice session

/practiceFeedbackDuration:	the duration (in ms) of the practice Feedback (default: 1000ms)
/getReadyDuration:			the duration (in ms) of the 'ready' trial (default: 5000ms)
/startFixation:					the duration (in ms) of the first fixation cross in a block (default: 2500ms)
/endFixation:					the duration (in ms) of the last (red) fixation cross in a block (default: 2000ms)
/picDuration:					the duration (in ms) of the images (default: 500ms)
/responseDuration:			the response timeout (in ms), measured from onset of image (default: 1500ms)

/goKey:						scancode of the go-key (default: 57 = spacebar)

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