___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ *Automated Operation Span Task (AOSPAN)* ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Main Inquisit programming: David Nitz (dave@millisecond.com) for Millisecond Software, LLC. Additional Inquisit programming: Jerry Grenard (grenard@ucla.edu), Sean Draine (seandr@millisecond.com) last updated: 02-25-2022 by K. Borchert (katjab@millisecond.com) for Millisecond Software, LLC Script Copyright © 02-25-2022 Millisecond Software Task Copyright © 2005 by Dr. Randall Engle (http://psychology.gatech.edu/renglelab/) ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ BACKGROUND INFO ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ This script implements the Automated Operation Span Task (AOSPAN), a measure of working memory. Working Memory Span Tasks Reference: CONWAY, A.R.A., KANE, M.J.,BUNTING, M.F., D. ZACH HAMBRICK, D.Z., WILHELM, O., & ENGLE, R.W. (2005). Working memory span tasks: A methodological review and user’s guide. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 2005, 12 (5), 769-786. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ TASK DESCRIPTION ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Participants are presented a visual sequences of letters ranging from 3-7 letters (default) that need to be recalled at the end. Each letter in the sequence in preceded by a math problem ("(8*2) - 8 = ?") followed by a proposed solution ("e.g. 9") and participants have to decide whether the proposed solution is correct or not. Letter recall is tested by asking participants to selecte letters from a provided letter matrix. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ DURATION ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ the default set-up of the script takes appr. 20 minutes to complete ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ DATA FILE INFORMATION ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The default data stored in the data files are: (1) Raw data file: 'aospan_raw.iqdat' (a separate file for each participant) build: The specific Inquisit version used (the 'build') that was run computer.platform: the platform the script was run on (win/mac/ios/android) date, time: date and time script was run subject, group: with the current subject/groupnumber session: with the current session id blockcode, blocknum: the name and number of the current block (built-in Inquisit variable) trialcode, trialnum: the name and number of the currently recorded trial (built-in Inquisit variable) Note: trialnum is a built-in Inquisit variable; it counts all trials run; even those that do not store data to the data file such as feedback trials. Thus, trialnum may not reflect the number of main trials run per block. stimulusitem.1: the presented stimuli in order of trial presentation response: the participant's response (scancode of response buttons) correct: accuracy of response: 1 = correct response; 0 = otherwise latency: the response latency (in ms) currentsetsize: the number of letters to recall for the current problem text.letters.currentItem: the currently presented letter mathproblemcount: counts the number of math problems in a given block text.MathProblem.currentItem: the currently presented math problem mathtrueanswer: the correct math answer mathanswer: the math response given mathcorrect: 1 = correct math response; 0 = incorrect math response mathaccuracy: percentage of correctly solved math problems within the current block mathtotalerrors: counts number of any errors (speed or accuracy) made during math problems within the current block mathaccerrors: counts the number of incorrectly solved math problems within the current block mathspeederrors: counts the number of times participant ran out of time when solving the math problems within the current block mathtimeout: duration (in ms) after which the math problem disappears (for test block: calculated for each participant based on average performance during practice) recalledletters: the number of letters recalled of the current problem totalcorrectletters: the total number of letters recalled in the correct position. totalrecalledsets: the number of correctly recalled sets ospan: The OSPAN score, uses the traditional "absolute ospan" scoring method. It is the sum of all perfectly recalled sets. So, for example, if an individual recalled correctly 2 letters in a set size of 2, 3 letters in a set size of 3, and 3 letters in a set size of 4, their OSPAN score would be 5 (2 + 3 + 0). //trial data (summary at the end of each complete ' test trial' stored under trial 'letter_feedback') trialCount: trial counter recalledLetters_perTrial: the number of recalled letters for the current trial only recalledLettersACC_perTrial: proportion correct recalled letters for the current trial only correctMath_perTrial: the number of correctly categorized math problems for the current trial only mathACC_perTrial: proportion correctly categorized math problems for the current trial only (2) Summary data file: 'aospan_summary*.iqdat' (a separate file for each participant) inquisit.version: Inquisit version run computer.platform: the platform the script was run on (win/mac/ios/android) startDate: date script was run startTime: time script was started subjectid: assigned subject id number groupid: assigned group id number sessionid: assigned session id number elapsedTime: time it took to run script (in ms); measured from onset to offset of script completed: 0 = script was not completed (prematurely aborted); 1 = script was completed (all conditions run) ospan: The OSPAN score, uses the traditional "absolute ospan" scoring method. It is the sum of all perfectly recalled sets. So, for example, if an individual recalled correctly 2 letters in a set size of 2, 3 letters in a set size of 3, and 3 letters in a set size of 4, their OSPAN score would be 5 (2 + 3 + 0). totalcorrectletters: the total number of letters recalled in the correct position. mathtotalerrors: counts number of any errors (speed or accuracy) made during math problems within the current block mathspeederrors: counts the number of times participant ran out of time when solving the math problems within the current block mathaccerrors: counts the number of times participant ran out of time when solving the math problems within the current block ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 Practice Session (default): a) Practice of recalling sequences of letters of set sizes 2-3 in ascending order (4 trials) b) Practice of math task (15 trials) c) Combined practice of recalling sequence of letters (set size 2 only) and math problem: each letter is preceded by a math problem (3 trials) Letter recall is done by picking out letters from a provided letter matrix. Test Session (default): 15 Trials (15 = 3 repetitions of 5 set sizes; order of set sizes is randomly determined): Recalling sequences of letters (set size 3-7): each letter is preceded by a math problem; Letter recall is done by picking out letters from a provided letter matrix. Scoring: The program reports five values at the conclusion of the experiment: The first, OSPAN score, uses the traditional "absolute ospan" scoring method. It is the sum of all perfectly recalled sets. So, for example, if an individual recalled correctly 2 letters in a set size of 2, 3 letters in a set size of 3, and 3 letters in a set size of 4, their OSPAN score would be 5 (2 + 3 + 0). Total number correct is the total number of letters recalled in the correct position (2 + 3 + 4 = 9 in the above example). Math errors are reported as total number of errors, accuracy errors where the subject solved the operation incorrectly, and speed errors in which the subject ran out of time in attempting to solve a given operation. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ STIMULI ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Letters: T, L, Q, N, F, H, Y, S, P, K, R, J Math Problems (test): created on runtime; only math problems with a *true* result >= 0 are allowed in the task ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ INSTRUCTIONS ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ see section Editable Instructions ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ EDITABLE CODE ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ check below for (relatively) easily editable parameters, stimuli, instructions etc. Keep in mind that you can use this script as a template and therefore always "mess" with the entire code to further customize your experiment. / learninginterval: duration (in ms) of the letter presentation trials / startmathtimeout: start duration (in ms) of the math presentation trials Note: the duration is adjusted for the test trials based on practice performance / debugmode: 0 = testmode => no debug information is presented 1 = debugmode => debug information is presented on screen